Antibiotics

Antibiotics certainly not something foreign. However, how antibiotics should be used, not everyone knows.

1. What was the benefit of antibiotics?

Antibiotics are chemicals designed to fight germs, especially bacteria. There are various types of germs, there is a big germs, there are small, with a diverse nature as well.

Germs tend to nest in a particular organ in the body of the host. Some like it in the brain, in the lungs, the intestines, nerves, kidneys, stomach, skin, or throat, and others. In the organs where it was breeding, specific bacteria causing the infection. Cause typhoid germs in the intestines of typhoid, TB germs in the lungs, but can also in bone, kidney, brain, and skin. Leprosy germs in nerve and skin, bacteria in the throat diphtheria, tetanus in the nerve, and many more.

Initially, discovered penicillin type antibiotics, and sulfa, which is used to treat all infectious diseases. Now, have dozens of types of antibiotics found, both from the same family, as well as the newer types. Each antibiotic has his own ability in the fight against germs. That's because, every clump of germs have their antidotes specific. However, most antibiotics are completely impervious or broadspectrum. That is, all the germs can dibasminya.

In addition, there is a narrow type of antibiotic use, specific only to certain germs alone. For example, antibiotics for TB germs (mycobacterium tuberculosis), for leprosy or leprosy (mycobaterium leprae), or for typhoid (salmonella tyhphi).

2.Kapan antibiotic use?
Antibiotics are used if there is infection by bacteria. Infection occurs when bacteria enter the body. Germs enter the body through the entrance on their own. There is a mouth with food and drink, breathing air into the lungs, through renik wound in the skin, through sexual contact, or enter through the bloodstream, then the bacteria into the organs that he liked to nest.

Common symptoms of infection is usually accompanied by body temperature rises, fever, headache, and pain. Infection in the skin inflamed red reaction, swelling, heat, and pain. Example ulcers. In the intestine,
Symptomatic heartburn, diarrhea. In the airways, coughing, sore throat, or shortness of breath. In the brain, headache. In the kidney, many of urination, urinary red or like milk.

However, symptoms of elevated body temperature, fever, headache, and pain, could also not caused by bacteria, but infection by viruses or parasites. Of complaints, symptoms and signs, the doctor can identify whether the infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.

The disease is caused not by germs not work treated with antibiotics. For virus were given antiviral, and to be given antinya parasites, such as antimalarial, antifungal, and anticacing. If infection by specific types of bacteria, usually doctors give antibiotics immediately in accordance with the bacteria cause. For example pain in the skin, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid, or red eye infections.

For the dubious infection, required a special inspection to ensure the type of bacteria causes. How to make breeding (culture) germs. Biakannya material taken from blood or saliva, sputum, urine, feces, brain fluid, pus genitals, or skin kerokan.

With germ cultures, but found the type of bacteria, can also directly check the appropriate type of antibiotic to put it down (the resistance test). Thus, the infection is more appropriate treatment. If not performed resistance tests, could be considered capable of antibiotics had no effect, because the bacteria have developed resistance to the kind of potent antibiotics are considered.

3.Kenapa more and more antibiotic resistant bacteria?
The use of antibiotics in these countries are developing often uncontrolled and tends haphazard. Antibiotics that can be purchased freely, ignorance of use, and not used up completely, causing the generation of resistant bacteria (resistant) to antibiotics that are used inappropriately and recklessly that. The use of antibiotics that are not spent, or make it half a recipe, for example.

The more frequent and much abused an antibiotic, the faster the germs that cause common immune ditumpasnya. Use of antibiotics erythromycine groups and the most widely used in the decade of the 80s, gave birth to generations of the more resistant bacteria to it. Then, created a new generation of the same family. Every few years, birth of a new generation of antibiotics to eradicate species that have been resistant germs. Tentu, dengan harga yang lebih mahal.

4.Apa side effects of antibiotics?
Like most drugs, antibiotics have side effects of each. There is a bad effect on kidney, liver, some are disturbing the balance of the body. The doctor knows what the side effects of antibiotics, so do not be given to any patient. Patients with liver disorders, for example, should not be given antibiotic side effects liver damage, even powerful
decontaminate patients who were idap. Doctors need to choose another antibiotic, may be less powerful, but does not have an effect on the liver.

However, if an antibiotic is not a replacement, antibiotics still used, with notes, the danger of side effects in a patient require monitoring by a doctor, if used for long periods of time. Antibiotics for tuberculosis, for example, that drinking at least 6 months, have liver function tests periodically, so if you have liver damage, a drug considered to be replaced.

5.Apa danger to overuse of antibiotics?
Use of antibiotics that are too often not recommended. In our country, people are free to buy antibiotics and use them when deemed necessary. A little cough colds, antibiotics drinking immediately. Once a new diarrhea, antibiotics immediately. Though not necessarily need. Why?

Not necessarily cold cough caused by germs. Initially by the virus. If the condition of strong bodies, viral disease generally heal themselves. Needs to be done on the diseases caused by viruses is
memperkuat daya tahan tubuh dengan cukup makan, istirahat, dan makanan bergizi. Giving antibiotics in coughs caused by common cold viruses are only wasteful and harmful entities, because the carry side effects that antibiotics did not have to happen.

The case of cough cold virus that had long, which is usually exploited by bacteria, just need an antibiotic to eradicate the bacteria, not for her flu virus. Sign of a cold cough antibiotics need is to look at his nose. That had been diluted into a clear thick yellow-green. During his nose was still weak nodes, antibiotics are not needed.

Drinking antibiotics too often also disrupt the balance of intestinal flora. We know, in the normal intestinal bacteria that help grow digestion and the formation of vitamin K. In addition, in certain parts of our body also lives benign germs that live side by side in peace with our bodies. In the vulva, the skin, the mouth, and everywhere there are body parts that do not interfere with the bacteria, but beneficial (symbiotic).

Too often take antibiotics meant to kill all the bacteria that are beneficial to tame your body. If the population of benign bacteria that bermanfat for terbasmi body, body balance of microorganisms can be disrupted, so that the fungus that had been frightened by the germs in our body the opportunity to more easily attacked.

That is, many people who after taking antibiotics too long, then attacked by fungal diseases. Can mushroom in the skin, intestine, thrush in the mouth, or anywhere else. Whitish mold on women because, among other things because of vaginal antisepsis too clean by killing beneficial bacteria around the vagina (Doderlein).


6.Berapa long antibiotics should be consumed?
Duration of antibiotic use vary, depending on the type of infection and germs cause. At least 4-5 days. However, if the infection is still not complete, antibiotics should be continued until the complaint and the symptoms disappeared. In typhus, need a few weeks. Similarly, the diphtheria, tetanus. Sampling time on tuberculosis which took many months. Including leprosy.

In certain infections, after a cup of antibiotic use, need to be re-examination of the bacteria cultures to ascertain whether the bacteria are completely terbasmi. Urinary tract infection, for example, after finishing a cup of antibiotics and had no complaints of symptoms, the bacteria cultures carried out to see what was left in the kidney of germs. If the remaining germs and antibiotikanya discontinued, the infection disease will recur again.

Including dental infection. Toothache is usually caused by a germ that enters the gums and jaw bone through the gaps in teeth or porous. In such circumstances, swollen gums and tooth pain. Antibiotics are given to the missing tooth pain complaints. If antibiotics taken only a day or two, the bacteria in the gums do not die all, so that the gum infection and tooth pain will recur again.


7.Kenapa antibiotics can not work?
Antibiotic does not work because of two things. Most often, the disease-causing germs have developed resistance to these antibiotics. For that to look for other types of antibiotics which is more sensitive. Usually, resistance testing should be done to find the right type of antibiotic.

The second because of resistance testing was not done before and immediately given antibiotics randomly, so probably not the right choice for antibiotikanya types of disease-causing germs. Antibiotikanya is not impervious to germs cause.

We know there are germs of gram-negative. For that we need antibiotics for this type of bacteria. If given an antibiotic for this type of gram-positive bacteria, of course does not work, because antibiotikanya misplaced. Or it could be because the infection was not caused by germs, but by viruses or parasites. Skin fungus did not catch fire was given an antibiotic ointment or cream, for example.


Antibiotic means 8.Apa hard?
This means do not need antibiotics from a new generation, if the classical antibiotics (penicillin groups) still work. However, for only a mild infection (flu), antibiotics are often given the latest generation. In addition to much more expensive, the body also carry side effects are usually more severe. The more powerful antibiotics, usually the harder side effects too. Kill flies do not have to use arrows, simply tapped. Similarly for light infections. If possible, do not hastily put on antibiotics. Our bodies have the antibodies. Each seedling disease, of any kind, which enters the body, to be exterminated by the immune system itself. New body surrender if the seeds are malignant disease, numerous, and the immune system is weak.

Not every time the germs enter our bodies will fall ill. If the prime immunity, germs that have entered the body will fail to infect, and we are off sick. Infection generally occurs only when the body is weak. For that, need help anti sent from the outside. Anti shipment from outside that is played by antibiotics.


9.Kenapa people can pass out after a drink or a shot of antibiotics?
Sometimes, after a drink or an injection of antibiotics can be passed. Certain people are gifted allergies, are generally not resistant to penicillin-type antibiotics, either drunk or injected. A few minutes to several hours later came an allergic reaction. Flavor thick and itching on the lips, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and fainting. If mild itching just like biduran. The reaction can lead to great blistered skin reactions, ulcerous-ulcer (Steven-Johnson syndrome).

For the talented allergies, should be tested first before getting an injection of penicillin class antibiotic. If positive, do not be given. Or if ever there was a history of itching after a drink or injection of antibiotics, make notes, so next time can remind doctors that do not bear the antibitioka. Now allergic reaction to antibiotics is rare, because there are many choices of antibiotics are more superior than without the risk of penicillin allergy.


10. Are all antibiotics just to be drunk?
No. In addition to the drug in a drink (oral), there is also in the form of injection (parenteral), ointments, creams, suppositories (inserted into the rectum or vagina liang); lotions, and drops. Skin infections using an antibiotic ointment or cream, red eye infections using eye drops or ointment, middle ear infections using antibiotic ear drops, antibiotics used germ white bullet-shaped which is inserted into the vagina (for a married, does not make that as a girl).

Antibiotics streptomycine, garamycine, only in the form of injections, is not available in the form of tablets or capsules. In contrast, most antibiotics are not necessarily taken in the form of injections. But, there is also a good antibiotic in the form of injections or a drink.

Tinge with antibiotic powder on the sore tooth cavity such as the customs or the injured person, not very precise. Effect of antibiotic penetration into the infected gum tissue is not as good as when taken, or could absorb such an optimal antibiotic is in the form of an ointment or cream, if to be used on the skin

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